By Hanne Gram Simonsen, Rolf Theil Endresen
The ebook features a choice of papers from the convention The Verb in Cognitive Linguistics, held at Gran, Norway in June, 1998. The papers during this booklet are all written inside a cognitive linguistics framework, targeted round diverse linguistic points of the verb. the 2 keynote papers (by Richard A. Hudson and Ronald W. Langacker) function an advent to this major subject, offering a huge viewpoint and a common, theoretical historical past from note grammar and cognitive grammar, respectively. the remainder ten papers are extra heavily aiming at addressing morphological, syntactic and semantic elements of the verb, illustrated via various languages and examine parts, together with, i.a., grownup language processing, language acquisition, connectionist modelling, and typology. A majority of the papers describe assorted facets of Norwegian - a language now not prior investigated at this kind of scale inside of cognitive linguistics. Norwegian bargains precious contributions via being heavily concerning English, but differing in sure vital and engaging methods. moreover, information from a number of different languages are integrated, between others Italian, Russian, and varied African languages, supplying a much broader typological diversity.
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Additional info for A Cognitive Approach to the Verb: Morphological and Constructional Perspectives
For one thing, subjects are generally more active and grammatically accessible than objects (specific cases are mentioned below). A more fundamental observation is that a relational expression may have a trajector without a focused landmark, but not conversely. g. with respect to ergativity, as well as various types of impersonal constructions). For present purposes, let us simply note the basic pattern across languages for a single-participant clause to have a grammatical subject rather than an object, even when the subject's semantic role is the same as that of a transitive object: (17) a.
It prompts the listener to evoke a certain domain of knowledge—the conceptual base, which we can identify as the reference point's dominion—and focus attention on a particular element within it, the profile, which is thus a target accessible via the reference point. In the case of a metonymic interpretation, the expression's profile (its usual referent) functions in turn as a reference point affording mental access to its intended referent. The overall symbolizing relationship thus constitutes a reference point chain.
Hence R and T are both things, just as for possessives (cf. Figure 4), except that R is necessarily intrinsic to the conception of T (which is true of many but not all possessives). Thus the proposed characterization of subject and object neatly accounts for the widespread use of possessive periphrasis with nominalizations. It further predicts (correctly I believe) that such periphrasis should be used primarily for the specification of trajector and landmark, and only by extension (if at all) for non-focal participants.