By Brian A. Pavlac
This attractive textual content bargains a quick, readable description of our universal Western history because it begun within the first human societies and built in historic Greece and Rome, then throughout the heart a while. delivering a tightly centred narrative and interpretive constitution, Brian Pavlac covers the elemental old details that each one informed adults should still recognize. His joined phrases "supremacies and diversities" enhance significant topics of clash and creativity all through background. "Supremacies" facilities at the use of strength to dominate societies, starting from struggle to ideologies. Supremacy, Pavlac indicates, seeks balance, order, and incorporation. "Diversities" encompasses the inventive impulse that produces new rules, in addition to efforts of teams of individuals to outline themselves as "different." range creates switch, chance, and individuality. those options of historic pressure and alter, no matter if utilized to political, monetary, technological, social, or cultural traits, provide a cohesive explanatory association. The textual content can be trained through 5 different topical topics: technological innovation, migration and conquest, political and financial decision-making, church and kingdom, and disputes concerning the which means of existence. all through, sensible "basic rules" current summaries of old realities. Written with aptitude, this simply obtainable but deeply an expert textual content offers all of the necessities for a path on Western civilization.More details, research courses, and hyperlinks to assets are available at the book's web site, www.concisewesternciv.com.
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Extra info for A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities throughout History, Vol. 1: Prehistory to 1500
The Persians encouraged trade, helped by the invention of money in their recently conquered province of Lydia in Asia Minor. Money appeared surprisingly late as a means of economic exchange, or at least it might seem so to us who take it for granted. For thousands of years of civilization, though, no one could trust it. Before money, people bartered for goods and services, trading their labor or goods such as pots, cows, or women. Using money meant that specially made lumps of precious metals (usually copper, silver, or gold) could be used instead, creating a more stable and consistent pricing system.
The masses had little choice. Throughout most of civilized history, most people remained in the class they had been born into. Social mobility, or the possibility that individuals could rise into a better class, remained rare until modern times. More frequently, attempts by the masses to achieve power alongside the elites drove historical change, often manifesting as class conflict. At the beginning of civilization, though, the aristocrats took charge. Two changes explain the elevation of a few people to aristocratic supremacy over the peasants.
A new dynasty consolidated the Middle Kingdom, which lasted a mere 250 years until foreign invaders brought it down. C. At that time, all over the Middle East, warfare and invasions destroyed civilized states. Two innovations about this time made war even more destructive. C. Iron, except for the problem of rust, was stronger and could hold an edge far better than bronze. Iron swords, spear points, and arrowheads became more lethally efficient in killing. Heavy iron helmets, breastplates, and shields likewise offered better protection, although only to those who could afford them or bear their heavy weight.