A Grammar of Hinuq by Forker, Diana

By Forker, Diana

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An illustrative list is given in (5). The influence from Russian is especially obvious in translations from Russian into Hinuq, which not only contain more Russian words than natural discourse, but also show alternations in the syntax. For instance, the word order in Russian is predominantly agent-verb-patient, but in Hinuq it is agent-patient-verb. Another example is the use of nouns marked for plural after all numbers except for the numeral 1, which is the norm in Russian, but not in Hinuq (in Hinuq normally the singular is used).

In summer and autumn women go to the forests in order to collect blueberries, raspberries, and mushrooms. Some Hinuq people work in the school, in the local administration in Kidiro, in the hospital in Kidiro, or as policemen to earn a living. The living conditions in Hinuq are not easy. The winters are long with a lot of snow, the summers are short. Electricity is available, but especially in autumn and winter the supplies are often interrupted. Water is provided by a selfconstructed system, but not every household has its own water supply.

Labialization is mostly found with syllable-initial consonants, mostly in word-initial position. But there are also a number of examples with word-internal labialization, especially within verbs. Syllable-final (and therefore word-final) labialization is not attested. Usually only one consonant per word is labialized, but there are a handful of words where in careful speech the first and the second consonant are identical and can both be labialized. However, in fast speech usually only one of the consonants is actually labialized, whereas the other consonant is not.

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