A vocabulary and outlines of grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or by J B Good

By J B Good

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Extra info for A vocabulary and outlines of grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or Thompson tongue : the Indian language spoken between Yale, Lillooet, Cache Creek and Nicola Lake : together with a phonetic Chinook dictionary, adapted for use in the province of British Columbia

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These details of phonological structure, however, do not concern us here (see Sandler & Lillo-Martin (2006) for details and discussion of various accounts). The grammaticalization of headshakes  Cameroon, in (21b), where the sentence-final negative particle pày is also specified for a suprasegmental feature, a low tone. (21) Negative particles involving suprasegmental markers – example (21a) from Zeshan (2006b: 156), (21b) from Meyer-Bahlburg (1972, in Dryer 2005:â•›454). ’ b. ’ [Musgu] The same is true for DGS: the headshake accompanying the sentence-final particle not is part of the lexical description of the sign.

A crucial typological distinction concerns the nature of the negative morpheme. Cross-linguistically, it is most common for spoken languages to employ either a negative particle or a negative affix (Dryer 2005). The former option is illustrated by the German example in (19a), where negation is expressed by the sentence-final particle nicht; the latter strategy is attested in Turkish, where clauses are negated by the negative suffix -mV (which is subject to vowel harmony) (19b). 12 (19) a. ’ b. ’ Interestingly, some languages are not content with using only one negative morpheme to express sentential negation.

Hs a. I think I was like ten if I … b. I don’t know what date it would have been ╅╅╅╅╅╅╅╅╅╇ hs eighteen twenties or eightee-e-n … something like that ╅╅╅╅╅╅╇ hs c. Where is he going? The grammaticalization of headshakes  McClave (2001) further observes that headshakes also commonly accompany whquestions (7c). Clearly, this use can be subsumed under the uncertainty function. After all, regular wh-questions by definition imply uncertainty on the side of the speaker.

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