By Zhigeng Fang, Hengwu Wei, Baohua Yang, Sifeng Liu, Ye Chen (auth.), Sifeng Liu, Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest (eds.)
This publication includes contributions by way of a number of the top researchers within the zone of gray platforms idea and purposes. all of the papers integrated during this quantity are chosen from the contributions bodily awarded on the 2009 IEEE foreign convention on gray structures and clever companies, November eleven – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This occasion was once together subsidized by way of IEEE platforms, guy, and Cybernetics Society, normal technology starting place of China, and gray structures Society of China. also, Nanjing college of Aeronautics and Astronautics additionally invested seriously during this occasion with its direct and oblique monetary and administrative supports.
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Being professionals (Fach-Menschen), they have a tendency towards stove-pipe peering and cylindrical thinking. Enclosed within their universe of concepts (silo) and single-mindedly dedicated to their domain, these Cyclops easily forget that the parts of an aggregate (Gesamtheit) can, but the parts of a whole (Ganzheit) can not be understood in isolation. This raises the important, all too often neglected, question as to whether, in terms of research and (higher) education, both the Scylla of being mile-wide-but-inch-deep and the Charybdis of being mile-deep-but-inch-wide can be avoided, whether generalization and specialization can be reconciled.
But mereology carries no commitment to concreta either: the parts can be as abstract as the whole. In other words, mereology is topic-neutral. Areas of space and eras of time stand in part-whole relationship. ) may have parts and be parts. It was Stanisław Leśniewski (1886-1939), famous member of the Lvóv-Warsaw School of analytical philosophy, who began to codify the formal principles of part/whole theory. For him, the minimal properties of a part/whole relation are that it is asymmetric (if a is part of b, b is not part of a), transitive (if a is part of b and b is part of c, then a is part of c), and supplemental (if a is part of b, then there is a part of b having no common part with a).
1 ‘Nation-State’ Defined A STATE distinguishes itself from other forms of human association, a golf or football club, say. It is a human community with territory and sovereignty. Let us be more specific about these distinctive elements. A state without territory doesn’t exist really. ‘Territory’ implies borders and/or frontiers, depending on whether the lines of demarcation are drawn by nature or man, grounded in some physical discontinuity/qualitative heterogeneity or not (in the first place).