Africans in Colonial Mexico 1570–1640 by Herman L. Bennett

By Herman L. Bennett

Полное название:"Africans in Colonial Mexico : absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole recognition, 1570–1640"
В этом исследовании, автор обнаружил много новой информации о жизни рабов и свободных чернокожих в Мексике и как их жизнь была регулированна правительством.

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As did the ancient Israelites in selecting Saul as king, all “rational creatures” were entitled to elect their rulers—a right which in the Old Testament was not predicated on living in a state of grace. Viewing in¤dels as “rational creatures,” Innocent deemed that they also could decide on their rulers. 6 In outlining his opinion, Innocent delineated a temporal domain that was simultaneously independent of yet subordinate to the Church. Laws of nations pertained to secular matters, a domain in which a signi¤cant proportion of Church members, known as the “dualists,” showed increasingly less interest.

Still, the ambitious Iberian monarchs were willing to interpret canon law in a manner that furthered their claims over in¤dels and Christians. 9 Developments in Christendom also brought the dominion of the extra ecclesiam under renewed scrutiny. Since the Church de¤ned all nonbelievers, including Saracens (a widely used term for in¤dels or those who willfully rejected the Christian faith) and pagans (individuals who existed in ignorance of the Christian faith), as the extra ecclesiam, it utilized the same laws and traditions in their treatment.

As urban masters imposed their authority over the enslaved, they confronted royal and ecclesiastical of¤cials who respectively de¤ned slaves as vassals and persons with souls. Africans and their descendants learned that con®icting obligations and rights accompanied the disparate identities ascribed to baptized slaves. Many, as the subsequent chapters reveal, became adept at manipulating their con®icting status as chattel, as vassals, and as Christians. 32 Africans in Colonial Mexico 2 “The Grand Remedy” Africans and Christian Conjugality What is a Negro slave?

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