By K Attenborough; V I Tokarev; Oleksandr Zaporozhets
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Extra info for Aircraft noise propagation, exposure & reduction : assessment , prediciton and control
35) relates to noise sources along surfaces S0 , S1 . Some noise sources exist outside the separation surface in the surrounding non-turbulent ambient medium. 34) is determined by integrating over V(ξ ). 35), ⎧ 1 ⎨ ∂2 σ1 (x, τ ) = 4π ⎩ ∂ xi ∂ xj (0) (0) vi vj V |x − ξ | dξ + ∂ ∂ xi (0) (0) V ∂ vi vj dξ ∂ξj |x − ξ | ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ (0) (0) ∂ vi vj ∂ξj + V ∂ dξ + ∂ξj |x − ξ | S 25 1 ∂ ∂ 1 − σ1 (ξ ) dS. 37) 1 ∂ (0) (0) v v + σ1 (ξ )δij dS . 1) in the approach considered has the form (0) ∂ vi ∂ (0) (0) [v v + σ1 (ξ )] = 0.
The extent to which global noise exposure goes up or down will depend very much on how airport operators accommodate the forecasted doubling of passenger trafﬁc over the next 20 years. 29 Many of the adverse environmental effects of civil aviation activity can be reduced by the application of integrated measures embracing technological improvements, appropriate operating procedures, proper organization of air trafﬁc and the appropriate use of airport planning and land-use control mechanisms. States and international organizations recognize the leading role of ICAO in dealing with the problems of aircraft noise and they keep the Council informed of their policies and programs to alleviate the problem of aircraft noise in international civil aviation.
In reﬂection problems, usually the total acoustic ﬁeld ϕt = ϕi + ϕ is the sum of an incident ﬁeld ϕi and a scattered ﬁeld ϕ . The remaining condition is Sommerfeld’s radiation condition for outgoing waves. For a three-dimensional pressure perturbation, this is written as: rp < C , r ∂p + ikp → 0 ∂r uniformly with respect to direction as r → ∞, where C is some ﬁnite constant. 23) of linear acoustics yield the principle of superposition of acoustic waves. In a linear ambient medium, free waves propagate irrespective of other waves, and a sound ﬁeld is a sum of separate free waves.