By David B. Rosenfield M.D. (auth.), Santosh A. Helekar (eds.)
Basic learn during the last decade or has exposed similarities among speech, specially its sensori-motor features, and vocal communique in numerous non-human species. the main complete stories to date were carried out in songbirds. Songbirds provide us a version method to review the interactions among developmental or genetic predispositions and tutor-dependent affects, at the studying of vocal communique. Songbird learn has elucidated mobile and molecular mechanisms underlying studying and construction of vocal styles, belief of vocal sounds, vocal motor keep an eye on and vocal neuromotor plasticity. extra lately, the whole genome of the songbird zebra finch has been sequenced. those discoveries, in addition to the identity of a number of genes implicated in familial human speech and language issues, have made it attainable to seem for analogues of speech and language disorder in zebra finches, at the least on the perceptual and sensori-motor degrees. ways specifically have led us toward the advance of animal types of human speech stipulations, specifically developmental stuttering and a familial verbal dyspraxia linked to a mutation within the gene for the transcription issue FoxP2. paintings on different animals that exhibit developmental sensori-motor studying of vocal sounds used for communique have additionally proven major growth, resulting in the potential for improvement of types of speech and language disorder in them. between mammals, the significant ones comprise dolphins and whales. In non-human primates, whereas vocal studying according to se is not well-known, investigations on their communicative talents have thrown a few gentle at the rudiments of language. those concerns make the ebook of a e-book fascinated by animal types of speech and language issues, detailing the general investigative procedure of neurobehavioral experiences in animals able to vocal verbal exchange and discovered vocalizations, a much-needed and valuable venture. it should function a unifying assessment of analysis during this new multidisciplinary frontier, spanning the molecular to the behavioral, for clinicians and researchers, in addition to a instructing source for complicated speech pathology and neuroscience scholars. This booklet can also be the 1st of its kind.
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Additional info for Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders
A number of putative targets of Foxp2 that were known to be involved in neurite outgrowth were shown to be regulated by Foxp2 in vivo in the developing mouse brain and/ or in neuron-like cells in vitro . Furthermore in cultured primary neurons taken from the developing mouse striatum, the loss of functional Foxp2 significantly affected the growth of neurites . Cells expressing normal Foxp2 showed significantly longer neurites with more branch points than the cells expressing mutated Foxp2, suggesting that in the developing brain, Foxp2 may contribute to setting up neural networks in language-related areas of the brain by affecting their connectivity .
E. Fisher suggesting no parent-of-origin effect for the deletion, in contrast to the findings of Feuk et al. . 57 Mb deletion was transmitted from mother to son, both of whom were affected with DVD . This submicroscopic deletion encompassed only three genes: FOXP2, MDFIC and PPPIR3A. Dysmorphic features were not observed in the family, and they did not meet the criteria for ASD, although the mother and son were classified with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).
The uPAR protein (also known as PLAUR) forms a complex with the protein encoded by SRPX2, a gene mutated in epilepsy of the rolandic speech areas of the brain . SRPX2 mutations may also produce symptoms of DVD and/or perisylvian polymicrogyria—a disorder involving abnormal cortical development associated with motor control deficits, cognitive impairment and in some cases seizures and/or language disorder . Given the shared endophenotypes and neurobiological features of syndromes involving FOXP2 and SRPX2 mutations, researchers hypothesised that the molecular pathways might be linked.